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What is osi model

\015 How does the works 7th layers of OSI models\015

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The 7 Layers of the OSI Model
\015\012\011\011\015\012Last updated: March 03, 2008\015\012\011\011\015\012\011\011
\015\012\011\011The OSI, or Open \015\012\011\011System Interconnection,\015\012model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in\015\012seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at\015\012the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer,\015\012over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.
\015\012\011\011\011\011(Layer 7)
\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012This layer supports \015\012\011\011\011\011application \015\012\011\011\011\011and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, \015\012\011\011\011\011quality of service is identified, user authentication and \015\012\011\011\011\011privacy are considered, and any constraints on data \015\012\011\011\011\011syntax are \015\012\011\011\011\011identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. \015\012\011\011\011\011This layer provides application services for \015\012\011\011\011\011file transfers, \015\012\011\011\011\011e-mail, and other \015\012\011\011\011\011network\015\012\011\011\011\011software services. \015\012\011\011\011\011Telnet and \015\012\011\011\011\011FTP are \015\012\011\011\011\011applications that exist entirely in the application level. \015\012\011\011\011\011Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
\015\012 \015\012\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\015\012\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012\015\012\011\011\011\011Presentation
\015\012\011\011\011\011(Layer 6)
\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012This layer provides independence \015\012\011\011\011\011from differences in data representation (e.g., \015\012\011\011\011\011encryption) by \015\012\011\011\011\011translating from application to network format, and vice versa. \015\012\011\011\011\011The presentation layer works to transform data into the form \015\012\011\011\011\011that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and \015\012\011\011\011\011encrypts data to be sent across a\015\012\011\011\011\011network, providing freedom \015\012\011\011\011\011from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax \015\012\011\011\011\011layer.
\015\012 \015\012\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\015\012\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012Session
\015\012\011\011\011\011(Layer 5)
\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012This layer establishes, manages \015\012\011\011\011\011and terminates connections between \015\012\011\011\011\011applications. The session \015\012\011\011\011\011layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, \015\012\011\011\011\011exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. \015\012\011\011\011\011It deals with session and connection coordination.
\015\012 \015\012\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\015\012\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012Transport\015\012\011\011\011\011
\015\012\011\011\011\011(Layer 4)
\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012This layer provides transparent \015\012\011\011\011\011transfer of data between end systems, or \015\012\011\011\011\011hosts, and is \015\012\011\011\011\011responsible for end-to-end error recovery and \015\012\011\011\011\011flow control. It \015\012\011\011\011\011ensures complete data transfer.
\015\012 \015\012\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\015\012\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012Network
\015\012\011\011\011\011(Layer 3)
\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012This layer provides \015\012\011\011\011\011switching \015\012\011\011\011\011and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as \015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\011virtual circuits, for transmitting data from \015\012\011\011\011\011node to node. \015\012\011\011\011\011Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as \015\012\011\011\011\011addressing, \015\012\011\011\011\011internetworking, error handling, \015\012\011\011\011\011congestion control \015\012\011\011\011\011and packet sequencing.
\015\012 \015\012\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\015\012\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012Data Link
\015\012\011\011\011\011(Layer 2)
\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012At this layer, data packets are \015\012\011\011\011\011encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes \015\012\011\011\011\011transmission \015\012\011\011\011\011protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the \015\012\011\011\011\011physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data \015\012\011\011\011\011link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access \015\012\011\011\011\011Control (MAC) layer and the \015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\011Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. \015\012\011\011\011\011The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains \015\012\011\011\011\011access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer \015\012\011\011\011\011controls frame \015\012\011\011\011\011synchronization, flow control and error checking.
\015\012 \015\012\011\011\011\015\012\011\011\011\015\012\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012Physical\015\012\011\011\011\011
\015\012\011\011\011\011(Layer 1)
\015\012\011\011\011\011\015\012This layer conveys the bit \015\012\011\011\011\011stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through \015\012\011\011\011\011the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides \015\012\011\011\011\011the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, \015\012\011\011\011\011including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. \015\012\011\011\011\011Fast \015\012\011\011\011\011Ethernet, \015\012\011\011\011\011RS232, and \015\012\011\011\011\011ATM are \015\012\011\011\011\011protocols with physical layer \015\012\011\011\011\011components.

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